Principles of Art Assignments

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Principles of Art Assignments
Uploaded: 20 July, 2015
by: Aidan.Morley
Description:

The Principles of Design are achieved through the use of the Elements of Design. Each principle applies to each element and to the composition as a whole. The Principles are: unity, harmony, balance, rhythm, contrast, dominance, and gradation.

Unity … Echoes of all elements relating.

Harmony … Within each element and as a whole.

Balance … With the "weights" of the segments of each element.

Rhythm … Variety and Repetition.

Contrast … Alternation.

Dominance … Within each element. (Center of Interest, Focal Point)

Gradation … Modeling, (3-D effect), Transitions.

Proportion

Emphasis

Variety

Movement

 

       

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Principles of art

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

The principles of visual art are the rules, tools and/or guidelines that artists use to organize the elements of art in an artwork. When successfully combined with the elements of art they aid in creating an aesthetically pleasing or interesting work of art.[1][2] Some principles of art that have been identified are movement, unity, harmony, variety, balance, rhythm, emphasis, contrast, proportion, and pattern. This list may vary, according to the art educator, but encompasses the generally accepted principles. Rhythm and pattern are often combined in art education.

Movement

Movement shows actions, or alternatively, the path the viewer's eye follows throughout an artwork. Movement is caused by using elements under the rules of the principles in picture to give the feeling of motion and to guide the viewer's eyes throughout the artwork. In movement an art should flow, because the artist has the ability to control the viewer's eye. The artists control what the viewers see and how they see it, like a path leading across the page to the item the artist wants the viewer's attention focused on.

Techniques such as scale and proportion can be used to create an effect of movement in a visual artwork. For instance, an element that is further into the background is smaller in scale and lighter in value. The same element repeated in different places within the same image can also demonstrate the passing of time or movement.[3]

Harmony

Harmony is achieved in a body of work by using similar elements throughout the work, and gives an uncomplicated look to a piece of artwork or sculpture.

Colour harmony or colour theory is also considered a principle through the application of the design element of colour.

Variety

Variety is the quality or state of having different forms or types, notable use of contrast, emphasis, difference in size and color.[2]

Balance

 
(l-r) symmetrical, asymmetrical, and radial balance

Balance is arranging elements so that no one part of a work overpowers, or seems heavier than any other part. The three different kinds of balance are symmetrical, asymmetrical, and radial. Symmetrical (or formal) balance is the most stable, in a visual sense. When both sides of an artwork on either side of the horizontal or vertical axis of the picture plane are exactly (or nearly exactly) the same the work is said to exhibit this type of balance. It is also a principle that deals with the visual weight of an artwork.

Proportion

Proportion is a measurement of the size and quantity of elements within a composition. In ancient arts, proportions of forms were enlarged to show importance. This is why Egyptian gods and political figures appear so much larger than common people. The ancient Greeks found fame with their accurately-proportioned sculptures of the human form. Beginning with the Renaissance, artists recognized the connection between proportion and the illusion of 3-dimensional space.

Pattern

Pattern is showing consistency with colors or lines. Putting a red spiral at the bottom left and top right, for example, will cause the eye to move from one spiral, to the other, and everything in between. It is indicating movement by the repetition of elements. Rhythm can make an artwork seem active.[2]

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Principles of Compositional Design

The principles of design are the recipe for a good work of art. The principles combine the elements to create an aesthetic placement of things that will produce a good design.

Center of interest - is an area that first attracts attention in a composition. This area is more important when compared to the other objects or elements in a composition.  This can be by contrast of values, more colors, and placement in the format.

Balance - is a feeling of visual equality in shape, form, value, color, etc.  Balance can be symmetrical or evenly balanced or asymmetrical and un-evenly balanced.  Objects, values, colors, textures, shapes, forms, etc., can be used in creating a balance in a composition.

Harmony - brings together a composition with similar units.  If your composition was using wavy lines and organic shapes you would stay with those types of lines and not put in just one geometric shape. (Notice how similar Harmony is to Unity - some sources list both terms)

Contrast - offers some change in value creating a visual discord in a composition. Contrast shows the difference between shapes and can be used as a background to bring objects out and forward in a design. It can also be used to create an area of emphasis.

Directional Movement - is a visual flow through the composition. It can be the suggestion of motion in a design as you move from object to object by way of placement and position.  Directional movement can be created with a value pattern. It is with the placement of dark and light areas that you can move your attention through the format.

Rhythm - is a movement in which some elements recurs regularly. Like a dance it will have a flow of objects that will seem to be like the beat of music.

The Principles of design are the results of your working with the elements of art. Use them in every piece of art you do and you will be happy with the results. - See more at: http://www.incredibleart.org/files/elements2.htm#sthash.SORF4SZY.dpuf

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